Had a question recently on what version of SQL Server is supported for upgrade to SCCM CB (current branch). Scenario was this; client was running SQL 2012 SP2 for their SCCM 2012 R2. However, in order to upgrade to SCCM CB, they needed to be at a minimum SQL version of SQL 2012 SP3.
Then, the question became, can I just upgrade to SQL Server 2016 and skip an upgrade step?
Not with the SCCM version in place, this would probably break SCCM 2012 R2. In this case, I’d recommend installing SQL 2012 SP3. Upgrade SCCM to CB 1702 (or later), then upgrade SQL Server 2016.
Reference the SCCM / SQL Server compatibly version matrix for the details.